Caching blogdown posts

This website is built using blogdown which is a great package that let’s you easily turn R Markdown documents into a Hugo blog. While a normal Markdown blog can include code a blogdown blog runs that code and includes the output. One thing that blogdown does which isn’t necessarily desirable is re-knit every R Markdown document whenever the site is built.1 This can slow down the build process but it can also result in changes to the content of a post. For example imagine a post that scraps some data from the internet. If that code is run a month or a year from now that data could have changed in a way that affects the meaning of the post. Perhaps a more likely scenario is changes to package functionality which change results or stop code working altogether. This post describes the build process I have come up with to try and avoid this happening.

blogdown file formats

I mentioned that blogdown works with R Markdown files but it actually handles three different file types which are treated in different ways (see here for more details):

  1. .Rmd - R Markdown files that are rendered directly to .html by blogdown and friends (including Pandoc)
  2. .rmarkdown - R Markdown files that are knitted to .markdown files by blogdown and then rendered to .html by Hugo.
  3. .md - Standard Markdown files which are ignored by blogdown and rendered by Hugo.

The .Rmd workflow is usually recommended and because it makes use of Pandoc it enables several features including citations which are useful for an academic blog. However it also comes with the (potential) problem with re-running code mentioned above. What I would like to have is something like the .rmarkdown workflow but where the intermediate Markdown file is still rendered to .html using Pandoc instead of Hugo.

The blogdown build process

Before we try and modify it let’s have a look at how the standard blogdown build process works. To build the website we use the blogdown::build_site() function. This takes a local argument which sets whether the site is being viewed locally or not as well as a method argument (which we will get to later). This is (briefly) what happens when you call build_site():

  1. Checks arguments and gets a list of files to build
  2. Calls the blogdown:::build_rmds() function
    1. This function copies by-product files (such as plot output) from where they have been stored to the build directory
    2. Each file is passed to the blogdown:::render_page() function
      1. This function is a wrapper which calls the render_page.R script
      2. The script creates a new local environment (I assume there is a good reason to do this)
      3. The file is rendered in the new environment (with some post-processing if the output is Markdown)
    3. After rendering (if the output is Markdown) the YAML frontmatter is copied to the output file
  3. By-products are moved back to their storage locations
  4. Hugo is called to build the website

My modifications

I mentioned earlier that blogdown::build_site() has a method argument. This can take values of "html" which is the default process I have just described or "custom" which replaces this process by running a R/build.R script which can do whatever you like.2 I have created a custom build script which is very similar to the blogdown functions with a few modifications. It is also inspired by this post but this method caches .md files which are rendered by Hugo rather than Pandoc. I’ll include some snippets below but the full script is here if you are interested.

Only render some .Rmd files

When finding files to render the script also checks to see if there is a .md.cached file in the same directory and that it is newer than the .Rmd file.

rmd_files <- blogdown:::list_rmds("content", TRUE)
message("Found ", length(rmd_files), " R Markdown files")
md_files <- sub("\\.Rmd$", ".md.cached", rmd_files)

# Only knit Rmd files if...
to_render <- !file.exists(md_files) |             # md file does not exist OR
    utils::file_test("-ot", md_files, rmd_files)  # it is older than the Rmd

If the .md.cached file exists (and is newer) it is rendered instead of the .Rmd file.

message("Rendering ", sum(!to_render), " cached Markdown files...")
for (md in md_files[!to_render]) {
    message("Rendering ", md, "...")
    render_md(md, base)

Otherwise the .Rmd file is rendered when required.

message("Rendering ", sum(to_render), " R Markdown files...")
for (rmd in rmd_files[to_render]) {
    message("Rendering ", rmd, "...")
    render_rmd(rmd, base)

One thing I found is important during the rendering process is that the YAML frontmatter is preprended to the output HTML file. I’m not entirely sure why but if you don’t do this the files aren’t included in the website properly by Hugo.

blogdown:::prepend_yaml(md, out, x, callback = function(s) {
    if (!getOption("blogdown.draft.output", FALSE)) {
    if (length(s) < 2 || length(grep("^draft: ", s)) > 0) {
    append(s, "draft: yes", 1)

Keeping intermediate Markdown files

In theory it should be possible to keep the intermediate Markdown file simply by setting keep_md: true in the document YAML frontmatter (or a central _output.yml file). Unfortunately that argument currently isn’t passed on in a way that works (see issue here). This means that we also need to create a custom render_page.R script. This script makes sure that the keep_md option is set when rendering .Rmd files.

output_format <- rmarkdown::resolve_output_format(input)
output_format$keep_md <- TRUE

The other thing we do is rename the kept intermediate Markdown files. If we Left them with the .md extension they would be rendered by Hugo after running the build script. I chose to name them .md.cached but they could have any extension.

Wrapping up

These scripts are now being used to build this blog. They seem to work 🤞 but I haven’t tested them extensively and I expect there will be some issues if I try some posts with more complex code in them (for example I’m not sure what will happen if I try and include a HTML widget). I’m still not certain this is the best approach but I have learnt a lot about how blogdown work (although there is still a lot I don’t understand 😸).

  1. I’m not entirely sure this is correct and based on some comments from Yihui it might be possible to avoid this happening in a standard way but I have seen enough similar questions that it seems other people have run into the same problem.↩︎

  2. It is acutally slightly more complicated than that. When method = "html" the R/build.R script is actually run after the normal process (if it exists) and can be used to do various things.↩︎

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